How to Make Hash Oil
What is Hash Oil?
Hash oil is derived from cannabis primarily using the same process of extraction that hashish is, but with continual repetition of that process. A dark brown to black oily sub- stance, hash oil usually possesses a THC content averaging 20 percent. Hash oil is normally smoked, either in combination with marijuana or tobacco or in specific paraphernalia.
Now, How to Make Hash Oil
Hash Oil Technique 1 - Hash Honey Oil – The Boffo Butane-PVC Hash Oil Extractor
Hash Oil Technique 2 - Solvent Extracted
Hash Oil Technique 3 - Fast and Easy Hashoil Production
Hash Honey Oil
The Boffo Butane-PVC Hash Oil Extractor
For those of us who never quite got over the loss when fine-quality hash oil disappeared from the market, and for cannabis connoisseurs of all ages everywhere, it would be my honor to write up what has to be the easiest, highest-yielding and most selective cannabis oil extraction method available to date.
This method has its basis in a fascinating industrial extraction method known as Supercritical Fluid Extraction. It uses totally over-the-counter butane gas (8 oz can, camping supply store, ~US$4.50) as the extraction solvent, and requires nothing even remotely suspicious or difficult to purchase. The only other thing needed is about $2.00 worth of PVC pipe: a section 1.5 (one and a half) feet long and 1 & 3/4″ diameter (outer diameter I believe), and two end caps. Threaded PVC is not necessary.
For reasons not yet clear to those of us investigating these things “unofficially,” butane (and perhaps other gas/solvents with similar ultra-low-boiling properties) selectively solvate the desirable fraction(s) of cannabis oils, pulling out only a beautiful amber “honey oil” and leaving the undesirable vegetative oils, waxes, chlorophyll, etc. behind in the plant matter. Even unsmokable shade leaves produce a wonderfully clean and potent gold oil with this method. I have every reason to suspect that this would work splendidly to extract a super-strong and tasty oil from gross, unpalatable “schwag” commercial pot too, and of course, the better grade of herb you put it in, the better the resulting oil.
Note that the amount of honey oil resulting is very low. Cannabis leaf and bud varies in THC content from 0.5% to over 10% for extremely high potency bud, with the average for normal quality material in the 1-3% range. With a perfect extraction (this method will not approach 100%), that would mean less than a gram of oil from each ounce of leaf and between 1 and 3 grams of oil from each ounce of high-potency bud. The primary use for this technique is to render leaf into a form more appropriate for medical use by removing other tars and ash-producing material from the psychoactive principals.
In one of the PVC end caps, drill a single small hole in the center. This hole should be correctly sized to snugly receive the little outlet nozzle of your butane can.
In the other end cap, drill a group of 5 or 6 small holes clustered in the center (like a pepper shaker).
After putting a piece of paper towel or coffee filter inside it for filtration, put the end cap with several holes on one end of the pipe. Push it on there real tight. This is the bottom
Fill the pipe up with plant matter that has been pulverized into a coarse powder. You want it filled, but not packed down. (Full pipe estimated at 1.5 oz capacity, but this is a guess. I did not weigh it.)
Place the top end cap on the pipe. Again, push it on as securely as you can by hand.
Find a location outdoors with a decent breeze. You want these butane fumes to be quickly carried away. Seriously.
Mount the pipe (single hole-side up) over a vessel that can hold 300mL+. Beakers are perfect. A lab stand and clamp are ideal for the mounting, but a regular shop clamp or anything that can hold it sturdily is fine. (Avoid metal if you can, to reduce the chance of sparks.) Position the bottom end of the pipe immediately over (1-2″) the receiving vessel to eliminate splatter loss.
Turn the butane gas can upside down and dispense the gas into the pipe via the single top hole. A whole 8-oz can takes about 10-12 seconds to evacuate. Be brave, swift, and careful. A spark at this moment would spell disaster since you have basically created an incendiary explosive device that is leaking.
When you’ve exhausted the can into the pipe, back off to a nice distance and let it do its thing.
The butane moves down the pipe, extracting the cannabis as it goes. When it gets to the bottom (~30 seconds after dispensing), it begins to drain into the receiving vessel. Notice the pale, glowing yellow-green-gold hue of the extract. It is obvious no chlorophyll was pulled out of the herb.
Over approximately five to eight minutes, the butane extract will finish draining from the pipe to the receiving vessel. Maintain caution with the pipe, however, since there is a lot of residual butane still evaporating from within the pipe (notice the stream of fumes coming from the top hole). When it slows down to a drop every few seconds, you can tap on the top hole with your finger and it will help push the last of the liquid butane out (or one can gently blow into the top hole to do the same thing). Remember, NO SMOKING, unless you wish to immolate yourself in grand fashion.
Being very low-boiling and volatile, the collected butane will likely begin boiling at ambient temperature. The receiving vessel will gradually frost up as the butane cools it down, slowing down its rate of evaporation, but you can speed this up again simply by holding it in your hands. A better way is to set it in a saucepan containing a little bit of warm water. Watch the butane start bubbling madly with the increase in temperature and marvel at its low boiling point. Again, be doing this outdoors with a nice breeze! It takes about 20 minutes or so to allow the butane to evaporate, or quicker if you help it along. You are left with a deep amber, almost orange oil of amazing purity.
The best way to collect and store the oil is probably to let all of the butane evaporate off and then redissolve the oil in some anhydrous or high-% alcohol, and then pour this into a vial and let it sit out for a day or two to allow the alcohol to evaporate. Trying to transfer the oil into a small container while it is still solvated by the butane is too risky. I learned the hard way about this, thanks to the volatile temperament of butane. I had filled a vial almost all the way to the top and was preparing to drop those last couple drops in, so that cleverly, I could let the last of the butane evaporate from the vial and the oil would all be neatly contained. But when the last drop hit the mother lode in the vial, it changed the temperature of the solution in the vial upward by a hair and it all “superboiled” out of the vial and onto my fingers, which of course startled me and caused me to drop the vial. I suggest dissolving it in alcohol as I mentioned above. If you can get pure or 99% isopropanol (isopropyl), use it, because THC’s photosensitivity reportedly does not occur in isopropanol.
The final product is a deep yellow-amber oil of the highest quality, incredibly pure and potent. I remember well some of the prime “honey oil” hash oils that hit the market in the late 1970s, and this stuff stands up to (if not exceeds) any of them. It’s amazing how this method extracts only the good fraction and leaves the junk in the weed. But that’s exactly what it does. Note also that this oil has a somewhat higher melt/vaporization point than traditional hash oils; the traditional dispensing method (dipping a needle or paper clip in, getting some goop on the end, and warming it with a flame to get it to drip off into your bowl) still works with this stuff, but it seems you have to be more careful with it because it doesn’t heat to liquid state as quickly or in the same manner, and it can more easily be allowed to burn up on your needle. So be careful.
Those who prefer a tincture-like preparation can of course thin the product a little with a bit of warm high-percentage alcohol like Everclear or 90-whatever-% isopropyl, then drop it onto buds or let a joint absorb some, then let the alcohol evaporate. I also observed that unlike hash oil derived from traditional methods, this product is not immediately soluble in room-temp alcohol; it needed to be warmed before it dissolved fully.
So there it is. Spread the word far and wide: honey oil is BACK!
[Note: Some concern has been expressed about the possibility of a PVC residue in the final product. This has not been verified, but a possible solution would be to use steel instead. Some reliable chemists have stated that PVC should be resistant to butane, but a preliminary flush of the PVC to remove any residue left from production might be warranted.]
Solvent Extraction Method
- Porcelain pot or heat resistant pyrex bowl, one which is suitable for use in the oven.
- cast iron skillet (frying pan larger than the porcelain pot)
- Coffee filters (the re-usable gold filters work very well as well, these can be bought at supermarkets)
- 2 bowls
- isopropyl alcohol (commonly available at pharmacies, look for alcohol that is 99% pure, denatured alcohol also works well, sometimes ispopropyl alcohol is called rubbing alcohol)
Take 1 coffee filter, and place your marijuana in it. Pour the alcohol over the marijuana in the coffee filter so that the alcohol drains into one of the bowls. Squeeze every bit of the alcohol from the marijuana into the bowl.
Now transfer the same marijuana into a clean coffee filter, and use the same alcohol to pour over it again into the second bowl.
Keep repeating this over and over again. If you have a problem with the coffee filters breaking apart while you are squeezing the marijuana, use 2 or 3 coffee filters at a time. The alcohol will turn green.
Next, take the iron skillet set it on the stove, and put the porcelain pot into the skillet. Fill the skillet with water.
- Alcohol is extremely flammable. Don’t be stupid, be CAREFUL!
- Do not cook the alcohol over the open flame. The water in the skillet assists in preventing the alcohol from getting too hot and helps to prevent the alcohol from igniting on fire.
- Ensure your kitchen has good ventilation. Use the stove fan and other fans to move the air around in order to prevent fumes from gathering in one place and igniting.
Let the alcohol in the porcelain pot in the skillet simmer on “LOW”. Make sure the skillet remains full of water. The alcohol will evaporate very very quickly. Make sure you do not let it evaporate too quickly or burn the alcohol.
Fast and Easy Hashoil Production
by The Watcher
Hello friends. I am going to try and relate to you, the real method of producing hash oil from the leaves of the cannabis plant.
Note: that if you are using flower of the female plant you will find an end product with at least 5 times the strength of the oil produced using the leaf of the plant. The reason for this is:
The leaf contains a low percent of the active compound tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).Which upon extraction from the plant will be mixed with a larger percent of the compound cannabidol (which the cannabis plant converts into the more active isomer tetrahydracannabinol by means of natural acids within the plant itself). So, by the process of isomerazation (which I will give instructions for in a bit), we will help nature along by converting the cannabidol into THC.
Now when you do an extract from the flower of the female plant you get a larger percent of THC than you do cannabidol. Now the THC being good to begin with you also get a bonus. The THC that is present will be converted to delta-9-THC during izmerazation which has a more pronounced psychedelic effect than the regular isomer of THC. (you also get some ungodly head rushes.)
So in conclusion, upon extraction and izmerazation from the leaves / shake / sun-leaves of the cannabis plant you have a large percent of THC which you converted from the cannabidol and a small percent of the delta-9-THC isomer which was converted from the already existent THC that naturally occur in the leaves of the cannabis plant. Now since there is a high concentration of THC in the flowers of the female plant and a noticeably smaller amount of cannabidol, upon extraction and izmerazation of the flowers you get a low percentage of THC and a much higher percent of the delta-9-THC conversion. This leaves you with a more psychedelic product when all is said and done. A bit of technical information taken from the solvent FAQ on:
found in marijuana, the psychoactive stuff
prop: bp 200 C @ 0.02mm Hg (other cannabinoids may have bp’s lower than 185 C)
sol: polar solvents, acetone, alcohol’s, etc.
note: this is an oily substance, not water soluble
Well it is time to get on with the extraction of tetrahydrocannabinol and the conversion processes…..
A LIST OF LABWARE:
- 1 CONDENSER 300 MM JACKET
- 1 FLASK, FLORENCE (FLAT BOTTOM), 500 Ml
- 1 SEPARATORY FUNNEL 500 M
- 1 FUNNEL
- FILTER PAPER
A LIST OF CHEMICALS THAT YOU WILL NEED:
- ETHYL ALCOHOL / METHANOL (wood alcohol)
- SULFURIC ACID (Concentrate 96 to 98 %(you can use a weaker acid but the delta-9 conversion is greater with the stronger sulphuric acid)).
- SODIUM BICARBONATE (baking soda)
NOTE: The most easy to find solvent for the extraction of the THC from the plant matter, is denatured alcohol which is ethyl alcohol that has been made Poisson with methanol (sunny side is a good brand of denatured alcohol). Methanol can cause blindness and death ! So don’t drink this stuff, and make sure when you separate the layers as described later on in this process, you don’t get any of the alcohol solvent layer in with the toluene layer.
Well, now that we have gathered all these solvents and glass ware, we will have some of the best hash oil in about 8 hours that you will ever find. So on to the process of extracting and izmerizing the cannabis essence.
You must dry your plant matter to a state where it will crumble into a fine powder.
TIP: use your microwave oven, heat the plant matter for 1 to 2 min at a time then let cool, do this till it is completely dry. To crumble the plant matter, place it in a 1 gallon plastic zip-lock bag and proceed to crush it with your hands. This works very well.
Place the powdered plant matter into your 500 Ml flat-bottomed flask.
Add enough denatured alcohol solvent to completely cover the plant matter, so that it floats freely in the solvent.
Connect your condenser to the flask. (Connecting the condenser to a water source).
Now, slowly heat the solvent / plant matter to reflux. Let this reflux for about two hours.
Turn the heat off your reflux equipment, let every thing cool down to room temperature.
Remove the condenser from the flask.
Now add your sulfuric acid to the solvent / plant matter solution, use one drop sulfuric acid per 50 ML solvent used.
Replace your condenser to your flask and heat to reflux once more, leave it at reflux for 4 more hours.
Note: this is where all the magic takes place.
turn off heat, let every thing cool to room temperature.
Note: The alcohol will have a dark black color at this point, it will seem to be almost thick.
Neutralize the alcohol with sodium bicarbonate.(baking soda)
Tip: When it stops fizzing you will have a neutral or slightly basic solution.
Filter the solvent from the plant matter with the use of your funnel and filter paper.
Note: If you are going to be doing a lot of oil production you should get a filter flask, aspirator and a buchner funnel. See the watchers chemistry works for information on filtering.
Add as much water as you have alcohol/THC extract.
Note: Toluene mixes with alcohol in all parts so you will not be able to separate the alcohol/toluene layers if you don’t add this water.
Add about 1/3 as much toluene as you have alcohol/water to your flask.
Mix all this well for about 30 seconds.
Note 1: As the THC dose not want to stay in the alcohol/water layer it will move with ease into the toluene layer.
Now use your separatory funnel to sperate the two layers. (see the watchers chemistry works for information on this procedure.)
Note: The toluene/THC layer will be on top. Also the bottom layer should be a light green color.
Important: If the bottom layer still has a black color you should do steps #14 to # 16 one more time, but once is usually enough.
Evaporate the toluene/THC layer till you can no longer smell any trace of toluene.
Note: when the toluene has evaporated you will have left in the bottom of your glass baking dish a black oil with a slight spice smell.
Well people, there you have it the over night process for the extraction/manufacture of some of the finest hash oil anywhere.